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An analogy is based on questions in which a particular relationship has been provided and another similar relation needs to be identified from the alternatives which have been provided. It tests a candidate’s overall knowledge, the reasoning ability and the ability to think concisely and accurately.
 
Once the basic concept is understood, the questions based on analogy can be solved with precision in the exam. Some of the exams in which questions from analogy appear include SSC, IBPS Clerk, SBI Clerk, RRB-NTPC etc.

Analogy PDF Set 1

 
When we define the word analogy, it denotes correspondence. In questions based on analogy, a specific relationship is provided & another similar relationship needs to be identified from the given alternatives. In the case of banking exams, there are two types of analogies asked: Numerical analogy and Alphabet based analogy. In this article, we are going to focus on the relevant patterns which are frequently asked in the exams.
 

Analogous Pairs

 
In this type of questions, two words are given and are related to each other. A Candidate is required to find out the relationship between the first two words which have been given and then choose the word from the given options, which bears the same relationship to the word which has been asked.
 
Example:
 
‘Iron’ is related to ‘Solid’ in the same ways as ‘Mercury’ is related to ______________ ?
 
A. Solid
B. Gas
C. Liquid
D. Vapor
 
Ans. C
 
Iron is found in solid state. Similarly, Mercury is found in liquid state.
 
Hence, option C is correct.

Alphabet Analogy

 
To solve such type of questions assign a numerical value to each and every alphabet in forward as well as backward manner. Try to remember the numerical values or else prior to the start of the exam note down their sequence.
 
These type of questions can be tricky and require regular practice to get an idea about the various patterns.
 
Example:
 
Here is some relationship between the two terms to the left of : : and the same relationship holds between the two terms to its right. Also, in each question, one term either to the right of : : or to the left of it is missing. This term is given as one of the alternatives given below each question. Find out this term.
 
MAD : JXA :: RUN : ?
 
A. OSQ
B. PRJ
C. UXQ
D. ORK
 
Ans. D
 
M A D
–3 –3 –3
J X A
 
Similarly,
 
R U N
–3 –3 –3
O R K
 
Hence, option D is correct.
 

Finding analogies

 
Finding and detecting analogies requires you to have some form of knowledge apart from reasoning ability. The questions can be formed from vocabulary, general knowledge, science etc. If you are well-read, you can easily solve such type of questions.
 
Example:
 
Here is a certain relationship between two given words on one side of :: and one word is given on another side :: while another word is to be found from the given alternatives, having the same relation with this word as the words of the given pair bear. Choose the correct alternative.
 
Garbage : House :: Gangue : ?
 
A. Factory
B. Office
C. Drugs
D. Ore
 
Ans. D
 
Garbage - is the waste of House.
 
Gangue - impurities in the Ore.
 
Hecne, option D is correct.
 

Number analogy

 
Understanding Number Analogy is important to solve questions based on reasoning ability. It is based on the questions related to Number Analogy. A candidate is asked to identify and point similarities or differences in a series or between groups of numbers.
 
Example:
 
Here is a certain relationship between two given numbers on one side of :: and one number is given on another side of :: while another number is to be found from the given alternatives, having the same relationship with this number as the numbers of the given pair bear. Choose the best alternative.
 
8 : 39 :: 72 : ?
 
A. 64
B. 312
C. 351
D. 300
 
Ans. C
 
The antecedent; 8 is first getting multiplied by 5 and then it is getting subtracted by 1 as 8 is the first multiple of 8. (8 = 8 × 1)
 
⇒ 8 × 5 – 1 = 39
 
Similarly,
 
We’ll first multiply 72 by 5 and then subtract 9 from it as 72 is the 9th multiple of 8. (72 = 8 × 9)
 
⇒ 72 × 5 – 9 = 351.
 
Hence, option C is correct.

 
Tips to remember:
 
? Gather all required information from the given pair (relations, sums, squares)
 
? Apply the same rules or relations which you guessed for the given pair to all the options